Browsing Tag

garlic spray

Vegetable Garden

Not everything green in the garden is good…

July 24, 2013

The beans have them, the chives have had them, the weeds have them and the windowbox lettuce is full of them…. do you have them? We’re talking aphids, greenfly or blackfly as they’re more commonly known and due to the warm weather there’s been a population explosion in the garden this year!

aphids2013 might go down in the record books for high temperatures and fabulous fruit harvests but in many gardens it will also go down as the worse aphid invasion for many years.

Despite planting lots of companion plants to attract beneficial insects, hoverflies and ladybirds have been very scarce in our own garden this summer. We spotted the first of both only a week ago which is way too late to handle this kind of infestation.

Greenfly on roses

Aphids on roses

In an attempt to control them, during the heatwave I washed the aphids off the roses and broad beans with the hose every other evening, holding the buds in my hand and rubbing the flies between my fingers as I sprayed to ensure that water wasn’t wasted. However, I soon realised that wasn’t enough to stop them reappearing a couple of days later so made a garlic soap spray for the first time in years which was carefully applied to rose buds and bean tops to halt the aphid breeding cycle. I haven’t removed the bean tops just yet which is usually recommended as the seeds were planted late and we need to see a bit more height in the plants before we halt their growth. Any day now I’ll be nipping the tops off and feeding them to our pigs! In the meantime the recent rain will help to control the aphid infestation.

Dealing with aphids and greenfly without chemicals is more labour intensive than the chemical alternative but it can be done. If you’d like to know more about their rapid breeding cycle take a look at an old Wednesday Wiggler blog post here. There’s also a blog post written here about mealy cabbage aphids you might like to check out.

Have you noticed a particularly troublesome bug this summer?

Vegetable Garden

Broad beans – a great crop for beginners

January 21, 2011
Broad beans - a great crop for beginners - hardy with a good success rateBroad Beans (Vicia Faba) also known as Fava Beans, are not usually available in supermarkets so home-grown pods are often the first many of us will ever try.
It’s the beans that are nestled inside the velvety pods that are usually eaten, although young beans that are no thicker than a finger can be cooked in their pods.
Larger beans must be shelled before they’re cooked, and can then be eaten hot or cold.
Big mature beans should be shelled and after they’ve boiled, the tough outer skin removed and the small beanlet inside can be mashed with butter (you’d need the patience of a saint to do that very often!). We usually dish them up with dinner and remove the beanlets ourselves.
We’ve always grow Broad Beans in our garden as three of us love to eat them cooked (I usually steam them) and the two girls love them raw.
They’re a very easy first veg to grow and ideal for beginners. They’re also very hardy and most varieties can be sown outside from October/November or February to April.
They germinate at much lower temperatures than most other vegetables and we tend to sow them here in or around February, depending upon conditions, making them our first legume crop (pea/bean) of the year.

We usually plant the seeds straight into the soil about 2.5 cm (1″) deep but they can be started off in modules in December, ready to plant out in February. It’s also a good idea to place stakes around the perimeter of the crop which will help to prevent the stems snapping in the wind (they’ll support each other).

Broad beans like well-dug, previously manured soil so are an ideal crop to follow potatoes. Once they’ve all been harvested, if they’re disease free chop the stems off at soil level and compost, leaving the nitrogen fixing roots in the soil to help the Brassica type crops (cabbages etc) that might follow them.


Things to watch out for ……. if you plant broad beans in the Spring, one day you may wander into your garden and find that the tops of them are covered in blackfly, who adore their sweet flavour. Sometimes just spraying them hard with the hose is enough to remove them, or pinching off the tops of the plants as soon as you notice the little black aphids.  A garlic spray works wonders on them too but will have to be repeated regularly.

We try to encourage beneficial insects into our garden that will prey on the predatory aphids, but hoverfly and ladybird larvae never seem to be around at this time of year when we need them!
Chocolate spot …… this is a disease that’s particular to broad beans and one we’ve suffered on every crop grown here. It is what it says … chocolate coloured spots that appear on the leaves, and then spread to the stems, flowers and pods, potentially leading to the plant’s death.

It’s caused by a fungus (Botrytis fabae) that thrives in damp, humid air and can overwinter on the remains of previously infected plants. For this reason it’s a good idea to get rid of old, infected plants rather than composting them. The good news is that it usually affects the pods last of all so whilst they remain unaffected (or infected), they’re still fine to eat.

Spacing the plants well, about 25cm between each plant – will help with air circulation and may prevent or delay infection.

So why not give Broad Beans a chance? They’re a great crop for grow your own newbies as their success rate is high, which all helps in raising the confidence levels.

Vegetable Garden

Pesticides and Fungicides using kitchen/garden ingredients

June 21, 2010

Lots of people have been asking how to deal with pests and diseases organically recently so I’ve listed below a few ‘recipes’ to deal with most of the common ones.

However, even organic pesticides and herbicides should be used as a last resort, and are generally never recommended for use in polytunnels and greenhouses.

In the long term encouraging a garden full of biodiversity is the aim.  Planting hedges and flowers that will provide hiding places and food for natural predators as well as providing bird boxes and areas with water will all help to create a more balanced environment.

Traps and barriers work well if you put them up early – for instance adding netting will prevent butterflies landing on the brassicas before they become a problem.  Turn a terracotta plant pot upside down, stuff it with straw and balance it on a bamboo stick – this will attract earwigs that can be collected and disposed of easily.

Crop rotation and companion planting should be used too eg moving potatoes to a new area each year will help prevent the build up of potato eel worm and planting alliums and carrots/parsnips together will benefit both species.  Blasting aphids off with a hose or squashing them between your fingers works whilst colonies are small and keeping greenhouses hosed down will help to keep red spider mite at bay. Learning to recognise pests and their cycles is important too. 

However, until you’ve built up the ‘good’ insect population in your garden, you may have to resort to more instant control, so here goes: (its a good idea to test a small amount on a plant 2 or 3 days before use to check that it doesn’t damage the plant).

Pesticides

NOTE: Most insecticides kill beneficial insects as well as their predators so use with caution. It’s often advised to spray in the evening when the beneficial insects will not be as active (for instance if you spray soap to kill greenfly, you may kill the hoverfly larvae that would eventually eat the greenfly).  As with any chemical, organic or otherwise, wear gloves and avoid breathing in the spray.

Insecticidal Soaps – Control aphids, thrips, spider mite
Buy from organic suppliers or make your own:

Soap Spray

2 tbsp (30ml) phosphate free washing up liquid (label may say safe in septic tanks)
2.2 lts water

Avoid spraying in bright sun as it can scorch foliage. Test a few leaves a couple of days before use as it may damage the plant. Will have to repeat every 24 – 48 hrs.

Rhubarb Leaves – All leaf eating insects

Rhubarb leaves are poisonous as they contain large quantities of oxalic acid. Wash vegetables thoroughly that have been sprayed before eating them.

1kg rhubarb leaves (can use tomato, elder or nettle leaves instead)

1lt water

Mix together, leave for a week, strain and use as a liquid spray.

Or

450g rhubarb leaves
1.1lt water

15ml soap flakes

Boil for 30 mins, topping up to allow for evaporation. Allow to cool and add soap flakes as a wetting agent. Strain and use as an undiluted spray.

Elder Shoots – Controls aphids and caterpillars


450g young Elder shoots
3lt water

Mix in large pan and boil for 30 mins. Strain and cool. Can be bottled while hot and will keep for 3 months.

 Cinnamon PowerDeters ants

Sprinkle at the entrance to their nest and they will move away.


Garlic SprayKills many insect pests and friends

Note: Do not use metallic containers with garlic sprays as they may react with the mixture.

1. Non oily version

1-2 garlic bulbs
Boiling water
1ltr soap spray

Chop garlic bulbs and cover with boiling water in a lidded jar. Leave to soak overnight. Strain and add to soap spray. Unused spray will decay but it can be frozen to preserve it.

2. Oily Version

100g chopped garlic

30ml liquid paraffin or baby oil

500ml water

5ml liquid soap (phosphate free)


Soak garlic for at least 24 hours in paraffin or oil in a sealed jar. Add water and liquid soap and stir well to emulsify the oil. This should keep well. Use 30ml of preparation in 500ml to spray plants.

3. Powdered dry garlic bulbs

Sprinkle the powder over affected plants or mix with water to make a spray.

Wormwood TeaControls aphids, caterpillars, flea beetles & moths

225 g wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)
2.25 lts water
1 tsp soft soap

Simmer for 30 minutes, strain and add soft soap and add to spray bottle. Alternatively place dried sprigs beside carrots & onions to mask their scent.

Sulphur – Spider mites, thrips

Fungicides

Fungal infections are usually visible to the naked eye and include mildews, leaf spots and rusts. They are spread by spores. Carefully removing infected leaves immediately they are infected will help to control the infection.

Sodium BicarbonatePowdery Mildew

5g baking soda

1lt water

Mix together for a spray

Or

Blackspot & mildew on roses

3 tsp baking soda
1 heaped tsp soluble fertiliser
Few drops phosphorous free washing up liquid
4.5 lts water

Mix first three ingredients together thoroughly with 200ml water. Add to the remaining water in a watering can. This can be watered over the foliage every two weeks, starting in early spring and continuing throughout the growing season.

Or

Downy mildew

100g washing soda
4 lts water
50g soft soap

Dissolve washing soda in water then add soft soap to a spray bottle


Or

Powdery mildew, blackspot

20g baking soda
15ml citrus oil
2.2 lts water

Mix and spray foliage lightly, including the undersides. Do not pour or spray this mix directly into the soil.

Milk – Mildew

300ml milk
700ml water

The enzymes of fresh milk sprayed on plants will attack mildew. A stronger solution will result in a foul smell as the milk goes rancid.

Elder SprayMildew and black spot

Same as pesticides:

450g young Elder shoots
3lt water

Mix in large pan and boil for 30 mins. Strain and cool. Can be bottled while hot and will keep for 3 months.

Dock SprayMildew

15g mature docks
1 lt water

Puree docks and mix with water. Leave to soak for an hour and spray.

Garlic SprayFor scab, mildew, bean rust & tomato blight.

See pesticide preparation above.

10g crushed garlic or – Powdery mildew.

15g crushed onions
1lt water

Horsetail – Mildew on crops and some rusts, eg., celery

Preventative against potato blight.

28g horsetail (can use all parts of the plant, including rhizomes)
1 lt water
Mix together and allow to stand for 24 hours. Strain and use undiluted as a spray.

Finally:

DISCLAIMER: The control methods are suggested here as a matter of general information. Under Irish and EU law it is illegal to use any preparation as a pesticide/fugicide/herbicide that is not approved for such use. The author and the website accepts no responsibility for how a user may mix, use, store, or any effects the mixture or its elements may have on people, plants or the environment. The information here is for reference only and does not imply a recommendation for use. If you disregard this warning and make any of the preparations, you do so entirely at your own risk.

[print_link]